HS2: subsidies breeding more subsidies

The rail industry depends on a very high level of state support. Much of the sector would not be viable without vast taxpayer subsidies and other special privileges.

The government supports the railways in several ways, including:

  • Providing direct subsidies from the taxpayer of about £6 billion a year (not including London Underground or light rail). This is equivalent to approximately 70% of fare revenue and represents a major distortion of the transport market.
  • Guaranteeing Network Rail debt, which has now reached an astounding £38 billion, larger than the national debt of Nigeria, a country of 180 million people. Big increases in such borrowing have enabled the government to hide the true level of taxpayer support by passing some of the costs on to future generations.
  • Imposing price controls on many rail fares, thereby increasing overcrowding, particularly on peak-time commuter services into London from satellite towns such as Milton Keynes.
  • Exempting rail fares from VAT. By contrast, tax is charged on road fuel at a rate of approximately 150%.
  • Adopting planning policies that push new development into areas adjacent to railway stations (for example, Stratford City), while restricting more spatially dispersed car-friendly growth. Also locating large public sector employers around rail hubs, including much of the civil service.
  • Funding ‘business’ rail travel by public sector workers and government contractors.
  • Suppressing competing modes such as road and air transport through high taxes, heavy regulation and restrictions on new capacity.

The artificial nature of the rail market raises uncomfortable questions for advocates of new rail infrastructure such as High Speed 2. Massive taxpayer support, regulated fares, discriminatory tax treatment and distortionary planning policies mean that the case for HS2 is grounded on levels of demand that have been hugely inflated by state intervention.

Existing subsidies are breeding future subsidies, with the UK’s transport sector and economic geography becoming ever more maladapted and distorted in the process.